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Peter Gabriel - Peter Gabriel (4 -

PETER GABRIEL (4 - "SECURITY" OR "MASK")

Peter Gabriel

 

Crossover Prog

3.93 | 434 ratings

From Progarchives.com, the ultimate progressive rock music website

Per Köhler
5 stars This is not just another review of Peter Gabriel 4. It´s rather the story of Peter Gabriel 4. Yes it´s a lengthy story and it could have been done even longer. Pandora's Box knows no end. Once you start to write the story will bud by itself. Like in a botanical garden, the Japanese cherry tree carries the loveliest flowers. Year after year. The mere sight of it is enough to feel its fragrance. The same goes for a very special music. You are able to discern its "invisible light", just by listening to its transcendental qualities. It takes intuition, feel, deep understanding and knowledge though. Beauty is for those who are able to discover it. I will divide the eight songs on the record in, let's say, three groups. The more commercially written (or at least produced)"Shock the Monkey" and "I have the Touch". Leastwise one of the two reached premier league. "Monkey" was Gabriel third big hit after "Games Without Frontiers" and "Solsbury Hill". Almost as big as Collins´"In the Air Tonight". Gabriel had indeed become a true superstar. The hot single gave 4 necessary push in the right direction. People don´t go out and purchase a full-length record if they´re unaware of its existence. "Shock the Monkey" became, just like "Solsbury Hill", a huge live favorite among fans. Its accompanying video was expedient and well worth one´s attention. Just remember Gabriel looking like an authentic clerk in suit. He could just as well have been the insurance officer at your local office. If you were to rank all videos from this singer, this would be a splendid choice for pole position. Not that it´s the most lavish or eventful, but just impressive in its directness.

"Shock the Monkey" is the sister song to "Games Without Frontiers" from 3. The siblings are resting on the same top modern, high tech bed. They define the crisp sound of the early eighties, utilizing all available technology of the time. Positioned as first track on side B on LP(not only a curiosity!). And just as interesting, its lyrical alliance. Human beings, monkeys(goons, baboons). How we all in this lot behave similarly with one´s back to the wall. We´re all a part of the evolutionary process no matter which side of the jungle. It never went equally well for "I Have the Touch". The most straight forward tune on the album. A perfect starter for the more indigestible dishes. The song, released in a number of different mixes/arrangements, could not compete. One vocal section was removed from the single version, in an attempt to make it even more streamlined. Next try, much later, was a version on the B-side of the Sledgehammer Ep, with additional meaty keyboard synths. In 1996 it became a part of the film Phenomenon. Its hit potential was never discovered by the record buying public, until now. Perhaps John Travolta knew the intricate trick how to turn a hitherto undiscovered Gabriel single into a sale item. As a result, it charted.

In the second group of the album I place "Wallflower" and "Kiss of Life". It's appealing to believe that the pair form a valid gray zone between light and dark on the album. And if so, how? "Wallflower" is an exemplary melodic and sedate piano-based thing. Its textual content is a natural continuation of what began on 3 in general and "Biko" in particular. The continent isn´t Africa here but South-America, let´s say Argentina or Chile. The Biko case ended in darkest possible way, in this present the outcome is more hopeful. Despite "the shutters on the window and no light at all" in a cramped prison cell, there is still a glimmer of hope with the final words "I will say to you, that I can do that I can do". Wallflower is sparsely arranged but evocative. The most expressive instrument is Gabriel's voice itself. The song is unique in the sense that it's not characterized by percussive dominance, as is the case on the rest of 4. "Kiss of Life" is a catchy thing that rounds off the album in an optimistic light. The song contains more musical muscle than the "Shock the Monkey" single, that's why it's seen in a little different angle.

All songs on the album are within 4.30 - 7 minute format. "Kiss" is no exception. There are no "extended versions" to be found. No instrumental sections, guitar solos, keyboard excesses à la Selling England-album are to be found. "Kiss of Life" is no exception; actually it's the shortest track on 4. Could the song have benefited from a free-form tuned percussion solo? Eight minutes instead of almost only four? Possibly, but this is from the LP days with its limited running-time so, be happy with what you got. "Kiss" utilizes the expertise of synth-wizard Larry Fast. Let´s title him Doctor of Philosophy(PhD) in Synthesizer construction. He also handles the electronic percussion. With the presence of Fast in the studio, the technocratic parts of the process just can´t go wrong. He´s also assigned co-production credit for his knowledge in the electronic field. Typical for the song "Kiss"(and album)is the moog brass on the chorus, which has no delay. All 70´s production would have had plenty. Restraint is the word. "Kiss" is representative for the albums flow, its sense of rhythm is nothing less than ingenious. Peter Gabriel is simply a very distinguished non-drumming drummer. The highly respected Rush drummer Neil Peart stated the same thing: - "Gabriel is not a drummer, but he has a great sense of rhythm". The Canadian spoke about the Security album, as 4 was titled on his continent(the North-American label refused to release it untitled). Perhaps Peart's positive comments contributed to the albums fine sales figures in his country. 4 went platinum in Canada.

"Kiss of Life" stands for top modern technology, fresh production and transnational sound images. The eighties, the new decade, has relentlessly made its impact and nullified its antediluvian predecessor. And Gabriel leads the way...The third group of the album consists of "The Rhythm of the Heat", "San Jacinto", "The Family and the Fishing Net" and "Lay Your Hands on Me". Their weight is equivalent to the El Capitan rock in Yosemite Valley Park. They stand just as solid and will do so indefinitely. This prominent quartet stands out not only on this particular record but also in the artist's entire career. Let's start with the exquisite first song, The Rhythm of the Heat. It´s some of the most emotionally captivating the composer has ever come up with. And simply the best music. It´s "Watcher of the Skies" ten years on. The face of God takes many forms. Just like the majestic Foxtrot-opener(its mellotron intro; an ode to Holst, but structured and shaped with genuine Tudor architecture), "Rhythm" allows the listener to embark on distant inner journeys. The tonal colours are dark, pitch black, with reddish elements interspersed. A deep blue sky adorned with creamy, pure white clouds smiles at you. Dry orange growths on a cracked rocky ledge. All for your pleasure... The location is not your hometown, rather a timeless sphere that feels enticing to explore further. This is your Kingdom Come. The surdo rhythm has become your heartbeat..."Rhythm" has some of the heaviest (or the heaviest!) percussion ever laid on record. In addition to a whole company of drummers of African/West-Indian origin, there´s also Jerry Marotta on his kit, minus cymbals. Gabriel himself contributes and on top of it all, programmed Linn drums. Onstage the presence of percussion became even more dominating! The whole band including Larry Fast, Tony Levin, Jerry Marotta, David Rhodes+Gabriel were lined-up at the front of the stage playing portable drums. Even Ekome Dance Company were present onstage at certain occasion.

The other new feature on "Rhythm" is a keyboard instrument called CMI Fairlight. CMI stands for Computer Musical Instrument. Don´t forget that around 1980 the computer was still, for most people, as abstract as a marching robot stationed on planet Mars. This was a new invention and Gabriel was one of the first (the first in England!) to take advantage of its limitless possibilities. With the fairlight you could easily walk out with a microphone in hand and record whatever sound you wanted. Like the roar of a car engine. The inviting hum of a dental drill. The blackbird in your garden. Or if you prefer; your mother-in-laws howling hair dryer. Then transfer it to your (very expensive) Fairlight and put it on record. The instrument isn´t exactly standing in every man´s wardrobe, purchase price amounted to 50 000 pounds in the mid eighties. Gabriel not only utilized the CMI, he also managed to incorporate its tones into his music in a masterful way. The CMI is there all through the album in a number of guises. Just try to trace their origin while you enjoy the chord progressions! Note that first take of Rhythm of the Heat included a full guitar arrangement. It was erased for some reason. Perhaps it would´ve been too much for the faint hearted listener ...For the ambitious who wants to find out where San Jacinto is located on the world map, you will learn that this song titles home is not one but two. They are both located in North America (Texas/California). Let's chose the second alternative, which seems more suitable for the story. The Spanish settlers arrived here a long time ago and named it Saint Hyacinth in their own language. The lyric is based on an oral story narrated to Gabriel by an Apache Indian. An age-old ritual where a novice is taken to the misty mountains by the wise Medicine Man. A poisonous snake bites(as planned) the young man, and leaves him to find his own way downhill. He will return, strong or weak, dead or alive. It has to be pointed out that the lyrics are not entirely lifelike regarding story, its characters, or at least the two subjects mixed together. But that´s not decisive. Art is not meant to reflect a scenario, rather to filter it to achieve desired experience.

The CMI Fairlight goes like a steam train on its rails. The content here is sound of broken glass added to traditional percussion, and drainpipe blown by human power(in the final section). The result is an audio phenomenon. One can rightly ask whether these sounds in themselves formed the song, or did the song find its true companions in the CMI? Tony Levin is present with his familiar stick. The bass player can be heard hitting the strings on all tracks, as opposed to 3 where he only guested on one title (stick on "I don´t Remember"). He´s still the only musician who has played on all Pete´s albums. Levin has been just as prolific on stage, where his presence is taken for granted. The guitars are finally making their rightful entry. It takes, however, more than half the track (or 9 minutes into the album) before it explodes. Both David Rhodes and John Ellis are allowed to add heavy chords. Not heavy as in "metal", the sound is hard but cleverly regulated and controlled. Ellis was live guitarist on the 3 tour, a role that was taken over by Rhodes later on. Neither of the guitar players excels with solos or fast playing. This era belonged to the dinosaur age, and went out of the door with the arrival of the modern man. It doesn´t imply that the guitars are less interesting. David Rhodes knows how to shine, also when his instrument is embedded in the song(a contributing factor to his employment). He understands wholeness, that moderation and silence are just as telling as the fuzz-pedal. His partner John Ellis is more of a complement, but in agreement with what´s desired from his employer.

Highly interesting is the female voice belonging to none other than wife Jill Gabriel. Her presence on 4 is far too short. It ends as quickly as it began. It's not Jill's first contribution to her husband's recordings. She co-wrote the lyrics(successfully!) on top song "Mother of Violence". But no one knew about her vocal abilities. Her duet singing works flawlessly and one can wonder why she wasn´t there for even larger responsibilities? Perhaps Jill's spouse preferred the male vocal(?), or maybe he simply didn´t want to get trapped in the "Paul/Linda" situation (where the female part of course is accused of being here solely on account of her husband, and not out of own merits). When the So-album arrived four long years later - Peter/Jill were both singing the final verse. Not in musical context, but in conjugal. They were soon to have their breakfast tea in different locations. Just as notable, Jill Gabriel is immortalized in Genesis music as an inspirational source to Suppers Ready. Things lighten up with "I Have the Touch", but we´ve already dealt with this third track so let's move on to next heavyweight, "The Family and the Fishingnet". The longest track on the album. With a grand song title like this you feel instinctively what to expect. More marvelous Fairlight sounds, this time in form of scraped exhaust pipe. You couldn´t imagine how musical the spare parts for your car can be, in their proper context! Also the sound of the swanee, which is a wind instrument also known as slide whistle. Perhaps not the most well known instrument in any genre, but used by jazz legend Louis Armstrong once and in classical music by Maurice Ravel. This is one of its few contributions to popular music, and it´s privileged with a place in this marvelous keyboard instrument.

Another main feature on "Fishingnet" is of course the presence of Peter Hammill. All descriptions of the latter may seem redundant, but is still relevant. Hammill is credited as "backing vocalist" on 4. That's probably true, but there´s more to it. Let's put this under the microscope. The space for detailed information about every contributor on a record is limited. Therefore, it becomes generalized rather than specified. If you want the exact input, you have to think for yourself. Do you have a painting signed Matisse/Picasso placed behind a radiator in the scullery? A backing vocalist is just there to fill out the space. Peter Hammill you listen to. The latter has a parallel career with his namesake Gabriel. They spent both late sixties/first half of the seventies(roughly) in their respective groups Van Der Graaf / Genesis(who in turn shared the same ultra legendary record label Charisma). Performed 25-minute pieces of complex counterflow-music, facing a university type of audience who were on requisite intellectual level. They moved on to solo works. Both are outstanding vocalists and highly original as such. They are not in the ABC-book of progressive singing. They are the ABC-book of progressive singing. The same description applies to the pair as artistic music makers and penetrative, shrewd lyricists. Do you think they have influenced each other´s writing? Well, why not? Listen to Hammill-song "Stupid" from This and you will possibly hear a few similes with a Gabriel-song called "The Family"........ Conversely, according to the scholars, "A Motor-Bike in Africa" is a source of inspiration for "Biko"!

None of them have ever settled down, but constantly sought new means of expressions. Regardless of trends or fashion. If there´s only one individual who has been given his music transferred to German language, in addition to Peter G, who is this then? You guessed it, Peter H. The gentlemen have a liking for female management, they have both benefited from the services of a lady by the name of Gail(not Gaga!)Colson. They even have residence in the same town, Bath. Producer on current disc, David Lord, has at more than one occasion worked with Hammill(eg on his contemporary masterpiece Patience). If you gathered this respected duos overall artistry, it would fill every single show-case of British Museum. Including its storage area, where all unfinished demo-tapes could be stacked! The similarities between Gabriel/Hammill are apparently many. This is like a fairy tale for an amazed music theorist. And hopefully - for everybody else as well! One can´t make no bones about the fact that there are disparities as well. Hammill has remained faithful to his main occupation, music making. Apart from regular solo albums, he also has his reunited band to cater for. Gabriel has gone from the same position to be equally involved in what´s around the music scene, and in some cases, even completely outside. Peter Gabriel himself talks about the turtle-effect, which is a creating moving at a pace required. Nobody complains about a sculptor who takes time to perfect his statue. Video art, a (great) number of film soundtracks, high tech Cd-Rom´s, Womad, amnesty, the mighty Ovo-project(was meant to take months, turned into years), Real World...All this is fantastic seen from a multi-artistic point of view. Also an important reason why Gabriel quit Genesis in the first place. Just to do what/when/how he felt like. But for the starving fan who´s longing for the next studio album...Hopefully they´re coming. Where is Peter Hammills "Shock the Monkey"? Where is the "Sledgehammer" of the Generator front man?? Hammill has never ever followed Gabriel up the single charts or reached the masses far away from progressive lands. Why did Gabriel go "from rags to riches" and not Hammill?

While your workmates on the assembly line happily hummed to Gabriel's latest hit, Hammill was struggling in solitude to even get a record contract. Why on earth did this happen? At the same time, how can you be so sure that the ex Genesis front man chose the glamorous route? Did the former flautist really aim for it? Wasn´t "Games Without Frontiers" a creation by the listeners just as much as its instigator? Did Gabriel force the consumer to go out and buy a record already existing on LP? No, not in the slightest! The latter song could in all its ingenuity has stayed firmly on its album, visible for the die-hard fan only. So finally, it's up to each and everyone to speculate if Peter Hammill just failed in this area or if he never opted for it. And as a matter of fact, the same predicament applies to Peter Gabriel. It depends how you define the term "Big Time". So we´re back where we started...Still, it´s remarkable how little attention this eminent vocal collaboration has received. No matter how little space it´s given(which only makes it even more valuable). Obviously it's difficult to see the forest hidden behind the trees. Someone might ask why Gabriel, in turn, never guested on any of Hammills numerous albums. The answer is probably not negative, just that it "didn´t happen".

It's tempting to further develop this fascinating subject, and here we can likewise note that 4 is the first solo album where guitar maestro Robert Fripp is missing. County governor in the King Crimson earldom. Just like his generation colleagues here, a demigod. This Fripps contribution to the first three Gabriel records is heterogeneous. From arranger(on demo tapes) to Sr. producer. From a generous helping hand to "only guitar player". Had he been involved in the making of 4, his role would´ve been similar to the one he had on 3? That means basically chord playing. This is just as good as anything. Or had producer David Lord insisted on a freer role? Probably not. 4´s dark mood could´ve been suitable for Fripp. It´s unclear if he even was in prospect. In any case, he deserves highly to be mentioned as a significant force in Gabriel's nascent solo career. Bob went on to recreate his dormant Crimso, albeit in a brand new band costume. They played "Red" onstage for the very first time."Fishingnet" continues with the albums characteristic mix of programmed/acoustic rhythm. The bass sound is not light and airy. Both stick and moog bass are like cake and pudding. This taste is exquisite for your eardrums. It's not an easy task for the average listener to separate the both instruments from each other, as they both have fairly similar sound. The stick, Tony Levin is not only well-known and skillful. He personifies the instrument. It has very little in common with the bass guitar when it comes to playing technique. Its construction seems futuristic. The bass normally has four strings, the stick eight, ten(or even 12). The strings are, in turn, divided in two groups. One melody- and one bass sounding. Unlike traditional guitar, its strings are only touched with one hand. You can therefore keep melody and bass running simultaneously. That´s the secret with the Stick.

"Lay Your Hands On Me", as the title suggests, is about the healing power caused by the simple, but stimulating effect from the touching hand("I have the Touch" is logically in the same mould). Gabriel used to do his stage diving where the fans were just as much a part, carried by a sea of hands out among the audience. A wondrous experience and a rare luxury. Also a little risky of course. The song itself does not need a manual effort to be lifted. The CMI offers once again new cliffhanging sounds. Is "Glock" a pistol? Or Glock(enspiel)? There was a newly constructed arm in 1982 called Glock, so... Arr 1? Saxy!? After all these abstruse figment, we are lucky to have the cozy and familiar scratch sound of a paving stone. Morris Pert(who passed away last year) makes a recurring display on his timbales. A top five ranked percussionist who played(free jazz) with Phil Collins in Brand X. Levin is said to deliver the usual bass and also fretless ditto. Can you figure out where? No, you can´t. Either is it down-mixed(and inaudible) or treated beyond recognition. It sounds more like fretless/ bass on "Wallflower". Such a bass has no delay, the tone is firmer and dies immediately after the touch.

David Lord takes an active role on the keyboards. The Prophet soundscape seems to be taken directly from the scorching savannah, with its panting pride of lions resting in the shade. Rhodes brings a minimum number of guitar tones, and this almost only at the end of the song. One per bar. The creator of Tubular Bells, Mike Oldfield, asserted rightfully that it´s better to play one tone and mean it, than to play 10 and not mean it. Jerry Marotta enters stately after three minutes admirable silence. The drums are so far ahead in the sound picture that you can almost touch them with your hands. Normally a rhythm is based either on acoustic- or programmed drums. On 4 hits a mix of both worlds, as we´ve mentioned. How do you get a drummer to share space with a static rhythm device? Or how do you get the Linn drum to sound human enough? If you look at the 1980s in general and it's horrible drum sound and inflated production(in fact it's by far the worst period in recorded history), then you realize how meticulous 4 was to become. If you´re not a drummer yourself, or if you don´t deliberately listen to the percussion, then you won't notice the difference between real and programmed drums. That's a good rating and also the intention, to bring the opposite into one unit. Just like on 3, you won't find any cymbal sounds on 4. The same rule here, only when you listen to the cymbals, you´ll realize the absence of them.

As we are fully aware of, this is Gabriel's fourth album. Is there something magical about "fourth"? And if so, why? Genesis album Foxtrot was No. 4 in chronological order, so there has to be something magical about it. For purely logical grounds. You reach a point when everything just clicks. When the plateau is ascended. When you occupy the summit of your personal Mount Everest. There´s nothing to change, to improve or replace. This era, however, usually only lasts for a short period. When creativity and enthusiasm meet experience and skill. When the innocent heart encounters the capable brain. This period is as narrow as the sharp edge of a knife. Subsequent albums can be just as good but studied, planned and contrived. Previous albums were perhaps on the same level but certain details in form of production, arrangements, mixing etc. weren´t up to scratch. So enjoy the crest of the wave while you can. How competitive is 4 compared to band Genesis? "San Jacinto" is just as strong, or even stronger, than "Carpet Crawlers". "I have the Touch" doesn´t stand alongside "I Know What I Like", but "The Family and the Fishingnet" touches "The Return of the Giant Hogweed" in every aspect. "Shock the Monkey" is probably the single "Happy the Man". "Lay Your Hands on Me", a cornerstone on a par with "Blood on the Rooftops"(from a post-Gabriel record). "Wallflower" takes similar colourful road as teenage-oriented "Am I very wrong?". "Kiss of Life" ends in the same rollicking manner as "Grand Parade of Lifeless Packaging" on side A of The Lamb. A great collection of danceable songs, it is. The dance steps, calculated using geometric circles, triangles and squares, form the ballet of the weightless fairy in the still morning mist. Close your eyes and witness her graceful moves balancing on the petals of her friend; the timid buttercup.

4 is the first Gabriel album with a real band feel. Study the instrumentation list and notice the first five names. They represent the band(the other serves as guests). Outside this quintet are all but percussionist Morris Pert newcomers on a Gabriel album. They know each other enough by now to communicate in an effective musical language. The harmony of the five piece group is tactile. Although Gabriel is the sole songwriter in the five piece, the solo artist has become Peter Gabriel Band. What about the producer of the album? He is not a small figure in terms of importance. His name is David Lord, and he is, if you want, right man at the right place. David Lord is Gabriel's fourth producer in equal number of albums. This is not a result of discord. Nor is it a disagreement on personal level. Not due to complaints from a frustrated record company. The reasons are quite different. To seek new artistic ways that no one has tramped on before. To reach unknown land may pose both hazards, mishaps and accidents. On 4 is away home. All foreign, odd instruments are safely gathered under one single roof. No producer in the world can make a weak song good. But a clever idea even better. David Lord is composer, arranger, engineer, keyboard player, a studio pro. Classically trained, worked with pop, folk, soundtrack for TV- and radio. What more can you possibly hunger for? He has Tori Amos, Xtc(listen to the mellotron drenched chorus of "All You Pretty Girls"), Roy Harper and Jean-Michel Jarre on his track record. Just to mention a few. At the same time an offish individual, who could have done even more fruitful for the progressive movement. Why didn´t Caravan, Camel or Curved Air attempt to benefit from his knowledge? Or did Lord turn them down in favour of the more manageable solo artist? Anyhow, he did a masterly effort on Gabriel 4. There´s not one tone, sequence or passage on 4 that is unthinking. The album is tasty as a dark 96% chocolate bar. It's not an insult to suggest that the Deep Purple Jon's namesake contributed to the albums final status. It's rather a compliment. The Gabriel/Lord pair encountered a few technical problems during the recording and had to solve them as a team. They put the puzzle pieces back in the right place.

Release date for their work was originally set to 1981, but was delayed one whole year. It was worth the wait. Despite the successful cooperation, their paths separated afterwards. There was no 4 part 2 in your record collection. Where is the acoustic guitar on 4? The 12-string and/or nylon 6-string? They are conspicuous by their absence. Why are they not here? Regarding the 12-string, this instrument was too synonymous with early Genesis and was discarded from the outset. So was the flute. But the 6-string? It was audible on 1 and 2 but not on 3 or 4. Where is the Hammond organ? Read previous sentence. The mellotron? The acoustic pianos? Does a certain instrument belong to a certain decade or era? Can´t they take a step "forward" just like the music? The New York Philharmonic don´t celebrate the New Year by taking the cello and the bass clarinet away from its repertoire. At the same time, if one component is gone, it will pave the way for something new. The Yamaha CP-70 electric piano had a floating and soft sound picture, compared to the traditional acoustic one with its hard sharp tone. Did it replace the grand piano, or was it a completely new instrument? Genesis song "Duchess" would definitely not have been the same without the CP-70. It's highly interesting to compare Gabriel to the remaining trio Genesis in this aspect. Abacab/Duke lacks most of, or all, the mentioned "seventies" instruments as well. The singer/band have long since gone their separate way, but in an eerie way, managed to undergo the same transformation. All in the same time transition.

Regarding the 4 tour can be mentioned that Gabriel did a one-night stand at Crystal Palace stadium Selhurst Park in the summer of 1983. None other than Phil Collins played drums. He made a flying visit, the ex-bandmate had learnt the set overnight. The autumn of `83 saw a European tour(I went to Stockholm myself). Non-album track "Across the River" alternated with "The Rhythm" as opening song throughout the journey. The North-American fans were privileged with a lesser known song with odd title, "John Has a Headache". A chorus friendly but not too remarkable tune. For the very first time since Genesis period, the performer Gabriel was in his element. Painted face and thus theatrical stamp on the show. If you study, or just look at the album cover you will notice the first(and so far last) Gabriel album lacking his own face. In other words, the face value has dramatically changed. The masked figure is his neat replacement. How will 4 be regarded in a distant future? Will anyone pay attention to this stand out twentieth century product? Will it become the rock-carving of progressive music? There´s no reason why the actual audio tracks, the music, would lose its lustre. There´s originality in its presentation. But what about the song titles, are they understandable for a future reader? Perhaps there´s a curious five year old wide-eyed child asking the grandparent about this unknown "monkey"? Our closest relative the chimpanzee is hunted, shot and slaughtered. It ends up at our dinner table, not only at home ground Africa but also right where you are in western society. Its environment disappears. The situation for the monkey is, truly shocking...

Per Köhler | 5/5 |

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