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Canterbury Scene definition

With many other types of English progressive music developing mostly in London, it may at first seem strange that the old pilgrimage centre and relatively quiet cathedral city of Canterbury, became the centre of this very English form of progressive music and jazz fusion. Originally the Wilde Flowers, a teenage band of members living in and around Canterbury, playing a mix of pop, R'n'B and band members with a developing love of jazz, was formed in the 60's and became the seedling from which the Canterbury Scene grew. Australian beatnik Daevid Allen during a long stop-over at Robert Wyatt's parent's home, a refuge for many left field artists, was to catalyse the evolution of the Wilde Flowers into the fledging Soft Machine and the development of some avant music during the English psychedelic and underground period. From 1963 to 1969, the Wilde Flowers included most of the figures who later formed Canterbury's two best known bands, (The) Soft Machine (Robert Wyatt, Kevin Ayers, Hugh Hopper) and Caravan (Pye Hastings, David Sinclair, Richard Sinclair, Richard Coughlan).

Canterbury was then to be the cradle for several of the more freewheeling British bands of the post-psychedelic era. While fans would suggest this is the home of an English musical quirkiness tempered with quite a bit of whimsy, within the Canterbury Scene's musical spectrum any similarities between Canterbury's major bands, (e.g. Soft Machine, Caravan, Gong, Robert Wyatt, Kevin Ayers, Hatfield & the North, Egg, National Health), are not immediately obvious*. Most bands will be found employing a clever fusion of rock rhythms and jazz improvisation with intellectual song-writing and varying strengths of psychedelia - some would too include folk elements (e.g. Spirogyra), others blues (e.g. Carol Grimes and Delivery). In addition, a number of bands employed various elements from classical music, for instance those bands with Dave Stewart playing keyboards. Whilst there have been a handful of excellent and distinctly different guitarists to play with Canterbury bands (e.g. Andy Summers, Allan Holdsworth, John Etheridge, Steve Hillage, Phil Miller), the lead instrument of choice has been keyboards. One English peculiarity of Canterbury is what the late John Peel called the 'School of Anti-song' because of particular Wyatt, Ayers and Richard Sinclair's approaches to vocals and perhaps the whimsy. More recently Richard Sinclair's vocal style has perhaps accurately been labelled as 'English jazz singing' by Jazzwise (i.e. singing jazz with an English rather than the usual American accent). In addition Canterbury musicians have experimented as avant garde, free jazz players, e.g. instance Elton Dean, Lol Coxhill, Steve Miller.

(*However, once you've heard some Canterbury bands the commonality becomes more obvious - chord sequencing e.g. Caveman Hughscore's electric piano opening on the tune 'More Than Nothing', the vocals, the lyrics etc.)

Both the Soft Machine and Caravan were popular in England's psychedelic/ underground scene before releasing their first albums in 1968, with Machine completing on level footing with Pink Floyd. However, by the early 70's a series of fragmenting changes of bands' line-ups, (Soft Machine went through about 30) and the subsequent formation of new bands, rapidly broadened Canterbury's range, with many newer musicians with only loose and in fact, no previous Canterbury connections. Early Soft Machine member Daevid Allen formed Gong in Paris. Both Kevin Ayers and Robert Wyatt left the Softs because of musical developments they did not like, to begin their own solo careers. By the mid-70's, most the old and new Canterbury bands had progressed away from psychedelia, developing their distinct forms of progressive rock some embracing jazz fusion, many playing extended jams with now limited lyrical input (e.g. Hatfield and The Norths, National Health, Gilgamesh). Caravan became more folky. However, as the 70's progressed several Canterbury bands would lose most of the rock element from their music. Gong retained their psychedelic side longest, but with the departure of Daevid Allen and Steve Hillage in the mid 70's, the band evolved into the percussion-oriented, jazz rock group Gong, which eventually became the modern day Gongzilla. Daevid Allen regained Gong's name in the 90's and through his solo work and with his University of Errors, is still evidently producing psychedelia. Steve Hillage's form of psychedelia evolved into the glissando rock of his own band and then into electronica, by the end of the 70's. In particular, Hillage through his work as a successful record producer of new bands from the 80's, develop his form of electronica through other bands. This music lost much of its complexity e.g. few riffs played over and over, rather than dozens per tune that previously had often typified prog, into a very popular form that is the antithesis of prog, i.e. the various forms of house music, with associated remixing/turntablism. For instance, Gong's "You" got the remix treatment in the 90's - but then to reflect his range of activities, Hillage has also produced and played guitar for Algerian Rai singer, Rachid Taha for over 20 years.

Many of Britain's better known avant-garde and fusion musicians of the 70's and 80's - including Fred Frith (Henry Cow), Allan Holdsworth (Gong, Soft Machine, UK, Bruford) and Peter Blegvad - were involved during their early careers playing in Canterbury bands. And still new musicians join the Canterbury Scene's ranks, Theo Travis being perhaps the most notable recently (Gong, The Soft Machine Legacy). The Canterbury scene was to have a major influence on musicians in Europe, especially France (e.g. Gong, Moving Gelatine Plates), the Netherlands (Super Sister)and Italy (Daedalus), and more belatedly in the USA (Hughscore). Caravan reformed in the mid 90's, while ex-members of Soft Machine could be found in various avant jazz and straight jazz fusion groups, e.g. Just Us, Soft Heap, Soft Works and most recently The Soft Machine Legacy. From the Canterbury Scene, RIO it its various forms has developed.

FOOTNOTE: As indicated above, many Canterbury Scene bands are acknowledged as having played/are playing jazz rock fusion. However, because of their strong Canterbury affliations are listed under "Canterbury Scene" in Prog Archives.

Dick Heath
Based loosely in part on the source:
(Edition 3, Aug 2009)

Current team members as at 14/02/2014:
Steve (HolyMoly)

Canterbury Scene Top Albums

Showing only studios | Based on members ratings & PA algorithm* | Show Top 100 Canterbury Scene | More Top Prog lists and filters

4.27 | 1453 ratings
4.30 | 702 ratings
Wyatt, Robert
4.25 | 852 ratings
4.27 | 642 ratings
Hatfield And The North
4.28 | 574 ratings
4.24 | 844 ratings
4.21 | 817 ratings
Soft Machine, The
4.26 | 333 ratings
National Health
4.19 | 466 ratings
Hatfield And The North
4.15 | 620 ratings
4.27 | 247 ratings
Quiet Sun
4.11 | 564 ratings
4.14 | 339 ratings
4.22 | 204 ratings
4.12 | 353 ratings
Hillage, Steve
4.25 | 177 ratings
4.13 | 304 ratings
National Health
4.38 | 99 ratings
Moving Gelatine Plates
4.02 | 452 ratings
Soft Machine, The
4.10 | 230 ratings
Picchio Dal Pozzo

Canterbury Scene overlooked and obscure gems albums new

Random 4 (reload page for new list) | As selected by the Canterbury Scene experts team

Soft Heap
Gowen, Miller, Sinclair, Tomkins
Picchio Dal Pozzo
Jakszyk, Jakko M.

Latest Canterbury Scene Music Reviews

 Hatfield And The North by HATFIELD AND THE NORTH album cover Studio Album, 1973
4.27 | 642 ratings

Hatfield And The North
Hatfield And The North Canterbury Scene

Review by Kaelka

5 stars I sat at my keyboard to write a nice review, and then thought : what could I say about this album that hasn't already been said in all the previous reviews?

Nothing really.

So, just a little story then, one that will perhaps appeal to those who are visiting this page only because they wonder who's the band with the funny name.

The year is 1980, the place a middle-sized provincial town near the small provincial town where I was born. In those blessed times, there were still records shop (I don't know about your place, but they vanished from french provincial towns ages ago), and I was coming out of my weekly pilgrimage to the town's biggest records mall when I realized there was a tiny used-records shop next door. I wandered in and spent a few minutes rummaging through the stacks of albums and singles, and I finally extracted two battered-looking LPs and bought them at a ridiculously low price. As I was at a boarding school, I had of course no record-player, and I had to wait until going home the following Saturday to listen to them.

And it was love at first hearing, not with one of them, but with both! They're still around somewhere, probably gathering dust in the attic, but in due time their CD versions have replaced them. They're still in my heart, I listen to them almost every week, and they're still at the very top of my list of favorite albums.

Well you probably guessed that one of them was "Hatfield and the North" (and Jonathan Coe was wrong, it's so much better than "The Rotters' Club"). The other one was Wyatt's "Rock Bottom". Not bad for a few minutes of improvised shopping, eh?

 Of Queues And Cures by NATIONAL HEALTH album cover Studio Album, 1978
4.26 | 333 ratings

Of Queues And Cures
National Health Canterbury Scene

Review by Kaelka

5 stars Despite some slight personnel changes (Greaves for Murray on bass, and the vanishing of the heavenly Amanda "Northette" Parson), there is such a continuity from "National Health" to "Of Queues and Cures" that they could almost have been released as a double. This review (and the 5 enthusiastic stars that go with it) is therefore meant for both works. So many nice (and true) things have been said here about NH's first two albums that all I can do is add my little voice to the choir of praise. Yes, this music is incredibly brilliant and complex, so full of surprises and time and tone changes, so brimming with ideas at every turn of a bar, that you can never get tired of listening to it. Yes, those guys are so good that they don't need to show off with never-ending solos, the way some jazz musicians do. And yes, this music is funny and joyful (to call it "cold" is deeply absurd) to the point that you could almost call it "feelgood music", to echo the concept of the "feelgood movie". To all intents and purposes, National Health is essentially Hatfield and the North under another name, and without Sinclair's songs (the same way Soft Machine got rid of Wyatt's songwriting and singing in 1972, although with far less interesting results). What you have here is the quintessence of Canterbury sound. Whatever began at the Simon Langton school in 1963 with the Wilde Flowers (although of course none of NH members were there at that time) reached its summit in 1978, at a time when prog was almost beaten senseless by the punks, with those two eternal albums.
 Pudding En Gisteren [Aka: Pudding & Yesterday] by SUPERSISTER album cover Studio Album, 1972
3.95 | 102 ratings

Pudding En Gisteren [Aka: Pudding & Yesterday]
Supersister Canterbury Scene

Review by Progfan97402

4 stars This is the third album from Supersister and they continued to be on a roll, although the album is a bit uneven. "Radio" starts off really deceptively in early '70s easy listening territory, but then there's a totally unexpected twist where they go all wild on us, sounding nothing like the first have. The lyrics seem to be an attack on mainstream radio (in America mainstream radio was AM, FM was still underground, but won't be by 1975 when it went commercial, and going the AOR route since then). "Psychopath" has a bit of a Caravan feel going on, complete with Richard Sinclair-like vocals, with Robert Jan Stips providing harpsichord, as well as Mellotron (an M300 that happened to belong to Phonogram Studios in Hilversum, Holland, which the album was recorded in, and was the same Mellotron heard on Earth & Fire and Ekseption albums until 1973). "Psychopath" isn't a favorite, but not bad. "Judy Goes On Holiday" is a great instrumental jazzy piece, which ends with the silly doo-wop of "Love Me in the Morning" (I own the original Dutch pressing on Polydor, there's a one minute silent gap between "Judy Goes on Holiday" and "Love Me in the Morning", which leads me to believe the latter was an afterthought and the band didn't intend that to be there, or perhaps the gap was there so people can switch to side two if they felt it was lame). The title track is also instrumental, and takes up all of side two, proves that Supersister can pull it off. It's just another album I can highly recommend.
 Back To Front by CARAVAN album cover Studio Album, 1982
2.42 | 100 ratings

Back To Front
Caravan Canterbury Scene

Review by Borik

4 stars I read a lot of negative reviews on this recording, but I dare to disagree with them.

No, this isn't the big prog reunion some Caravan fans might have hoped for. But... yes, this is the classic line-up and yes, they sound like classic Caravan! I admit this album is very poppy, but I can remember the highly acclaimed 'For Girls Who Grow Plump In The Night' is very poppy as well.

Personally I prefer this album above the stylish-similar 'Blind Dog' from '77, although this material sounds a bit more fresh and transparant.

For the famous David Sinclair keyboard solo you must wait until the epic last song, which is wonderful, but on 'Videos of Hollywood' he plays a very nice synth solo as well. Another pleasant component of the album is the wonderful sound of Richard Sinclair's bass, which is very clear present in all the songs. On top of the cake we hear a few very nice sax solos from the one and only Mel Collins.

To everyone that likes the classic 70's Caravan and both 'Blind Dog' and won't set epic prog expectations too high, this is a very enjoyable album, worth quite a few spins. It's Caravan in what they do best: writing catchy poppy songs with a blend of colourful instrumentation.

 The Winstons by WINSTONS, THE album cover Studio Album, 2016
4.01 | 31 ratings

The Winstons
The Winstons Canterbury Scene

Review by Warthur
Prog Reviewer

4 stars There's a small but notable subset of Italian prog musicians out there, going back to Picchio dal Pozzo, who fit less into the more symphonic-oriented RPI sound and whose approach has far more in common with the whimsical, psychedelic-jazzy playfulness of the Canterbury scene. The Winstons are the latest to dip their toes into these particular waters, with their debut album apparently being informed by extensive listens to early Soft Machine and Hatfield and the North's body of work. (They even work in some vocal harmonies reminiscent of the voice-as- instrument experiments of Robert Wyatt and the Northettes.) The musicians all have indie rock day jobs, but I'm glad they took the time to produce this touching tribute to this particular sound.
 Waterloo Lily by CARAVAN album cover Studio Album, 1972
3.74 | 470 ratings

Waterloo Lily
Caravan Canterbury Scene

Review by ster

4 stars Different but still excellent.

Caravan did such a great job cultivating such a great sound from their debut to their third album, In The land of Gray and Pink. This was due to a stable lineup and great contributions from all members. After ITLOGAP failed to become the commercial success they had hoped, keyboardist David Sinclair left and was replaced by Steve Miller. Newcomer Steve Miller brought a more jazzy influence that was contrary to guitarist/vocalist/songwriter Pye Hastings style. The sound of the band changed since Miller sounded nothing like David Sinclair and bassist/vocalist/songwriter Richard Sinclair was very accepting of the new direction. Now the band were at odds and the album has an obvious contrast of styles. Waterloo Lily is a bit of a let-down because it sounds different from its predecessors but is still a great record in its own right.

Waterloo Lily is a rock tune with some jazzy chops. Hilarious lyrics and great playing. An Excellent song and a Canterbury classic.

Nothing At All /It's Coming Soon / Nothing At All is an instrumental that starts off with a jam that maybe overstays its welcome by a few bars. Mid-tempoed with plenty of improvised soloing along a related riff, but the "It's Coming Soon" section makes up for it with its great melodies, variations and dynamics.

Songs And Signs is a shorter piece penned by newcomer Steve Miller. Very melodic with great vocals. Great tune.

Aristocracy is a Pye Hastings song that doesn't disappoint. A leftover from the Gray and Pink sessions. A fun poppish song although the version on the deluxe version of ITLOGAP is better IMO.

The Love In Your Eye / To Catch Me A Brother / Subsultus / Debouchement / Tilbury Kecks is the epic on the album and one of Caravan's great moments. Great melodies with a backdrop of brass and Jimmy Hastings excellent flute playing. The tune then morphs into a jam not too different than the second track but little better and maybe a little too long. Still an excellent track with lots of variation.

The World Is Yours is an acoustic Hastings penned tune that's nice but kind of weird that they chose this to end the album.

 Alive in Paris-1970 by SOFT MACHINE, THE album cover DVD/Video, 2008
4.47 | 19 ratings

Alive in Paris-1970
The Soft Machine Canterbury Scene

Review by ALotOfBottle
Prog Reviewer

5 stars The amount of live Soft Machine material released since the 90's may seem overwhelming to many listeners. However, so far, only a few concerts have been officially released on DVD. In 2008, the English record label Voiceprint, released the French POP 2 TV recordings of the band performing at Théâtre De La Musique in Paris on 2 March 1970.

Since the very early days of Soft Machine's existence, France has been showing big enthusiasm for their music. Way back in 1967, the band spent the whole summer gigging local venues in Saint-Tropez, one of the major towns of the French Riviera. Although in those three years the band's musical direction has changed drastically, the French audience proved equally welcoming and interested in 1970.

The line-up of Soft Machine at the time included the studio personnel that recorded Third with the extraordinarily talented wind player Lyn Dobson, who appears on the live-cut "Facelift" on the album. The atmosphere of the concert looks and sounds unrepeatable and after all these years, one can still feel the incredible chemistry between the musicians that was at work at that very point in time. The band not only presents incredible amounts of energy and vigor, but also technical and musical know-how, together with a rare ability to build powerful tensions, hypnotizing the audience. The set lasts just over an hour and during that hour, Soft Machine perfectly capture the spirit of their style around this period, which so many live releases have tried to document. The visual aspect undoubtedly adds to the experience, enabling us to witness, among many elements, Mike Ratledge's Keith Jarrett-like trance movements at the keyboards, the power and dedication Robert Wyatt puts into his drumming, the interaction and sax duels between Lyn Dobson and Elton Dean, Hugh Hopper's agile fingers pulling off difficult grooves and melodies on bass guitar, and young French audience, completely astonished by the music. As to the filming, the camera work is decent, except for a few unneeded shots and sudden cuts from one track to another. We get to view the band clearly from numerous different perspectives and have a close inside look at their stage set-up.

The opening of "Facelift," kept in an unsettling experimental psychedelic manner, may remind one of a slightly more technical and rock-oriented version of the way Miles Davis redefined jazz on the revolutionary Bitches Brew, which, interestingly, was released three weeks after this concert took place. The main theme of the piece, played by the whole band simultaneously, is followed by lengthy improvisation, which starts out on a steady rhythm, but fades into a mellower, remote and illusory territory after a few repeats. Lyn Dobson gets to really display his multiinstrumentalist abilities. He switches between soprano sax, flute, harmonica on his solo, and even uses his voice as an instrument briefly. When the tempo picks up once again, Elton Dean first appears with a saxello - a small variant of a soprano saxophone, different in build and, obviously, the sound. Seemingly out of nowhere appears what is credited as "Robert Wyatt Vocal Improv." Here, Robert Wyatt uses tape echo and spring reverb devices in conjunction with his voice for a very odd, yet immensely expressive effect. This transforms into "Esther's Nose Job" (what was it about those plastic surgeries?), a classic Soft Machine piece, which, strangely, did not make it into any of the band's studio albums. The track alternates between a simple laidback progression in 7/8 and a rapid passage with notably interesting work by Robert Wyatt on drums and Hugh Hopper on bass guitar. If "Facelift" was, for a good part, a demonstration of Lyn Dobson's abilities, Elton Dean showcases his own approach to improvisation on "Esther's Nose Job." The track is closed by a few more blurred sentences from Wyatt and a reprise of the theme at a break-neck speed.

After a break, the band comes back on stage with "Eamonn Andrews," yet another classic piece, which never made it into any studio record. The pulse of this one is once again quite tricky with the main motif combining classic jazz-fusion methods with somewhat of a minimal influence on the rhythm. After fine solos from both of the wind players, "Eamonn Andrews" suddenly cuts into "Backwards," a really touching, beautiful, calm, romantic piece with a very interesting progression. The emotional, lyrical flute playing by Lyn Dobson is supported by Robert Wyatt's sublime drumming and light liquid organ touches from Mike Ratledge. "Backwards" slowly starts growing in power, with the theme of "Mousetrap" making a short appearance, to finally settle on "Out-Bloody-Rageous," arguably one of the better-known Soft Machine compositions. Of course, the live scenario cannot reproduce the Terry Riley-like intro heard on record, but this version is very good nonetheless, with great improvisation on Mike Ratledge's overdriven Lowrey organ, Elton Dean's alto and Lyn Dobson's soprano saxophones. After a loud and effective ending, the band walks off stage, only leaving an even louder standing ovation behind.

I daresay Alive in Paris 1970 is an essential watch and listen for every Soft Machine enthusiast and is recommended to those wanting to get an all-around taste of the incredible energy and passion the band presented live. The musical content is of the highest order, the recording quality is very high, and the image is more than satisfactory, which leads me to a conclusion that this DVD is one of the "ultimate" Soft Machine live documents. The Voiceprint label definitely deserve a big acknowledgement for allowing the listeners to get as close as possible to what the lucky audience got to experience on March 2 1970 at Théâtre De La Musique in Paris. Definitely worth your investigation. 4½ stars rounded up!

 In The Land Of Grey And Pink by CARAVAN album cover Studio Album, 1971
4.27 | 1454 ratings

In The Land Of Grey And Pink
Caravan Canterbury Scene

Review by marcobrusa

5 stars This one caught me by surprise. I had never listend to an entire canterbury album before. I decided to start with this one because of the very high rating, with no expectations. I fell in love on the first listen. Absolute masterpiece. No filler. No virtuosism. Every song is perfect. I listen to this album at least once a week at this very moment. Winter Wine has some of the best lyrics i've heard in my life (at this point, and if the singer is clear, i understand english whithout reading the lyrics). It's one of those albums that will stay forever in the top of my personal list. Nothing more to say. Masterpiece.
 Rejoice! I'm Dead by GONG album cover Studio Album, 2016
4.21 | 70 ratings

Rejoice! I'm Dead
Gong Canterbury Scene

Review by Slartibartfast
Prog Reviewer

5 stars A wonderful; gift was at my door today. Long live Gong! My first encounter was Expresso, then Shamal, then Time Is The Key. All incarnations are great in their wonderful way. My last encounter was Pwntanune. Daevid had nothing but respect for the uncarnatuins he wasn't in on and U think he'd totally enjoy this incarnatuin. I know there will no doubt be some fans of Daevid and Gillis' Gong but please listen to this with an open mind. Daevid left us in March of last year but he is still with us. He brought wonderful weirdness to music. While Kavus has carried on the legacy, He and Gilllie will be sorely misses. So long and thanks for all the tunes.
 Postaeolian Train Robbery by COS album cover Studio Album, 1974
4.18 | 89 ratings

Postaeolian Train Robbery
Cos Canterbury Scene

Review by DamoXt7942
Forum & Site Admin Group RIO/Avant/Zeuhl & Neo Teams

4 stars This superb debut album of COS can be called as one of important landmarks upon the Belgian Canterbury Scene. Pascale's colourful, delightful voices supported upon the sound grandeur created by other musicians of genius give us an invitation to an enjoyable madness party, and (not many reviewers can have a positive appreciation for their roots though) also the last four "old" songs exert energetic melody magnification. Very interesting their roots "The CLASSROOM" had already had definite fantasia, and the fantasia might have anticipated the new era named COS I imagine.

A reflective combination of Daniel's loud and pleasant flute vibes and Charles' quiet piano stardusts, following to an ill-matched introduction phrase, is obviously simple but remarkably powerful like Soft Machine, the vanguard in Canterbury Scene. And for me some acidity can be heard via the atmosphere under their freaky sound circumstance. Pascale sings as if she would read poetry, cry upon a curtain call, or chuckle like a cute kid ... actually her voices are not only theatrical but also charismatic. Jaunty and springy steps produced by the rhythm party (Robert, Steve, and Alain) should tighten and strengthen their quirky melody lines, which form the sound basis.

It's quite impressive and immersive they have created such an originality via intensive simplicity (a good example is Melanie's "Brand New Key" if I'm correct). So let me say one of my favourite tracks is the last "L'Admirable Amas Cellulaire Orange" almost only with Pascale's pretty voices and xylophone footsteps. Simple is great indeed.

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Canterbury Scene bands/artists list

Bands/Artists Country
KEVIN AYERS United Kingdom
THE BOOT LAGOON United Kingdom
BRAINVILLE United Kingdom
CARAVAN United Kingdom
CLEAR FRAME United Kingdom
COS Belgium
DELIVERY United Kingdom
EGG United Kingdom
THE GHOULIES United Kingdom
MICHAEL GILES United Kingdom
GILGAMESH United Kingdom
GONG Multi-National
JOHN GREAVES United Kingdom
GRINGO United Kingdom
STEVE HILLAGE United Kingdom
HUGH HOPPER United Kingdom
JAKKO M. JAKSZYK United Kingdom
KHAN United Kingdom
THE LODGE United States
MAGIC BUS United Kingdom
MANNA/MIRAGE United States
MATCHING MOLE United Kingdom
MILLER & COXHILL United Kingdom
PHIL MILLER United Kingdom
MOOM United Kingdom
THE MUFFINS United States
PANTHEON Netherlands
PAZOP Belgium
JOHN G. PERRY United Kingdom
PIP PYLE United Kingdom
QUANTUM JUMP United Kingdom
QUIET SUN United Kingdom
SHORT WAVE United Kingdom
SOFT HEAP United Kingdom
SOFT MOUNTAIN Multi-National
SOFT WORKS United Kingdom
VOLARÉ United States
ROBERT WYATT United Kingdom
ZYMA Germany

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